2017年2月5日 星期日

<好文分享ˋ>五個關於姿勢的誤解 Five Misconceptions About Posture

常常聽到病人說"我姿勢不好所以應該就好不了"剛好看到一篇適合的文章,分享給大家


其實近幾年,物理治療對於姿勢的想法已經漸漸轉變,研究顯示治療動作跟訓練肌肉,比起直接把姿勢擺到正確位置來的有效。這也是我近年治療的核心想法。


(畢竟大家應該都有經驗,姿勢真的很難馬上改過來)




以下是本文


身為一個Rolf按摩治療者,我看過非常多人想要改善他們的姿勢。許多
人已經在網路上應用一些可疑的建議。這篇文章總結了一些人們對於姿
勢主要的誤解。

As a Rolfer, I see many people who want to improve their posture. Many are already in the process of applying some questionable advice they may have read on the internet. This post summarizes some of the major misconceptions people seem to have about posture.

誤解#1: 不好的姿勢是造成你的疼痛的原因

BAD IDEA #1: BAD POSTURE IS THE CAUSE OF YOUR PAIN
姿勢會導致疼痛被認為是一個事實,並且你可以透過改善的姿勢來治癒你的疼痛。你到處都可以看到這種宣稱。這些宣稱有直覺性的判斷,但是他們缺乏了強而有力的證據來支持。(如果有請馬上寄給我,我非常樂意知道。)


It is an article of faith that bad posture will result in pain, and that you can cure pain by improving posture. You can read such claims everywhere. Although these claims have intuitive appeal, they are lacking any strong evidence in support. (If you have some, please send it my way, I would love to know about it.)



如果不好的姿勢是疼痛的主原因,那麼你將預期發現人們如果有著非常巨大扭曲的姿勢應該會比一般沒有這樣的人要來得有更多疼痛。但這並不是多數的研究發現的事情。較多的證據顯示疼痛與你的姿勢扭曲程度並沒有太大的關係,例如脊椎側彎弧度。這是很令人驚訝而且有點違反直覺的,但這觀念必須要深植在那些想要投入大量的時間跟努力試著去改善自己的姿勢來治癒疼痛的人的心裡面。

If bad posture is a major cause of pain, you would expect to find that people with measurable postural distortions would have more pain than people who do not. But that is not what the preponderance of the studies find. As summarized in this blog post, the weight of the evidence is that pain does not correlate very well with measurements of posture such as spinal curvature. This is surprising and somewhat counterintuitive, but it should definitely be borne in mind by anyone who plans on investing considerable time and effort trying to correct posture for purposes of pain relief.

誤解#2: 好的姿勢需要不停的注意

BAD IDEA #2: GOOD POSTURE REQUIRES CONSTANT ATTENTION

我的許多客戶相信他們不好的姿勢是由於他們平常沒有注意自己的姿勢。然而實際上我們並不能整天去擔心我們的姿勢。我們的身體並不是設計來需要刻意的監測我們肌肉的運作。我們走路的時候不需要提醒我們自己在對的時刻去活化屈指長肌,也不需要在坐著的時候注意活化核心或是收縮肩胛骨。

Many of my clients believe their poor posture is the result of failed attention. As a practical matter, we cannot spend all day worrying about our posture. Our bodies are not designed to require conscious monitoring of muscular activity. We can walk without reminding ourselves to activate flexor digitorum longus at the right time, and we can also sit upright without being mindful to activate the core or retract the scapula.
事實上,我們真的沒有選擇只能讓姿勢在不知不覺的過程中呈現。甚至你非常謹慎的注意自己的姿勢,你也很快的就會放棄注意他而受其他的東西分心。所以如果你想要有好的姿勢,你必須讓他成為一個無意識的動作。(這不代表有意識的注意姿勢是不好的主意,但這並不是一個好的長期策略。)


In fact, we really have no choice but to allow posture to be dictated by unconscious processes. Even the most vigilant conscious policing of your posture will be abandoned after a second or two, as soon as some other distraction arises. So, if you want good posture, you must somehow make it an unconscious act. (That doesn’t mean that conscious attention to posture is never a good idea, only that it is not a good long term strategy.)


誤解#3: 好的姿勢需要額外的努力

BAD IDEA #3: GOOD POSTURE REQUIRES EXTRA EFFORT
我的許多客戶相信他們不好的姿是因為他們的懶惰或是可能某些姿勢性的肌肉缺乏力量。他們維持幾分鐘他們認為好的的姿勢就會感覺到累,所以他們下了一個必須要增加自己維持這個姿勢的耐力的結論。這可能會是一場敗局。解決的方法通常不是增加能力來努力的維持姿勢,而是要去找到一個你花費較少的力氣去維持的姿勢。

Many of my clients believe their bad posture results from laziness, or possibly poor strength in certain postural muscles. They feel tired after only a few minutes of assuming what they think is a good posture, and then conclude they must increase their endurance at holding the position. This is probably a losing battle.The solution is usually not to increase your ability to sustain effort, but to find a posture that requires less effort.

事實上,一個動作你感覺你花了多少的努力,是一個很好的方式去判斷這個動作是不是適合你。就姿勢來說,你的理想上的姿勢應該是感覺更輕鬆而不是比你現在的姿勢更困難

In fact, the sense of effort associated with movement is a good way to determine whether the movement is right for you. In regard to posture, this means your optimal posture should feel easier, not harder, than your current posture.


因此如果某種姿勢讓你覺得需要額外的努力,或許那就不是有效。在任何情況下,你的大腦會比較喜歡最有效率的方式去做事情,所以他將會很快的大概三到四秒的時間在你沒有注意控制的時候,就放棄那些沒有效率的姿勢策略。


Therefore, if a certain posture feels like it requires extra effort, it’s probably not going to work. In any event, your brain, which prefers the most efficient way to do something, will be smart enough to abandon an inefficient postural strategy the very first moment that you stop consciously controlling it. Which should be about three or four seconds.

誤解#4: 姿勢意味著維持著不動

BAD IDEA #4: POSTURE MEANS HOLDING STILL


人們認為姿勢跟動作是相反的,就像你保持不動。因此人們常常會在他們認為好的姿勢下變得僵硬。這是個不好的想法,因為這會干擾所有要經常發生在各種姿勢間的任何動作。

People think of posture as the opposite of movement – as something that you “hold.” As such, people often become stiff when they assume their “good” posture. This is a bad idea because it interferes with all the movements that must occur constantly during any posture.


所有的姿勢都需要不間斷的呼吸,呼吸是一個幾乎需要所有全身的軀幹肌肉來做的動作。這個論點與平常建議收小腹來站得更直更穩定是違背的。有意識的去收緊你的小腹或許會讓你覺得比較高,但是也容易鎖緊一些你用來呼吸的肌肉。

Every posture requires ongoing breathing, which is a movement that can involve nearly every muscle in the trunk. This fact works against the common advice to suck in the abs as a means to become more upright and stable. Consciously sucking in the abs might make you feel taller, but it also tends to lock in some of the muscles that must move to allow breathing.

除了呼吸之外,靜態的動作(尤其是站姿)包括了持續震盪的動作,站姿事實上是一個高度不穩定的姿勢,它就像是平衡一個15磅的保齡球在一支竿子上面,而那支竿子又在兩支竿子上面,這些又在兩腳骨頭上。站姿就像是一個不間斷的小小的跌倒然後再恢復的一個過程,這是需要肌肉不斷的透過這兩種方式去調整自己的身體。這導致非常小但是可以察覺到的一個持續震盪的模式,就是頭會在腳上面畫八或者是繞圓。

In addition to breathing, static posture (especially standing) involves constant oscillatory movement. Standing is actually a highly unstable position - it’s like balancing a fifteen pound bowling ball on top of a stick on top of two other sticks on top of two bony feet. Standing is a continual process of tiny falls and recoveries, where the muscles constantly adjust to tip the body one way and then the other. This results in a very small but perceptible oscillating pattern where the head moves above the feet in a figure eight or circle.


所以,姿勢並不是去阻止動作,而是讓非常小的動作達到一個中心的平衡。試著去想像你是一個泡泡頭的洋娃娃,你可以感覺到非常隱微的一個動作而且一直不斷地無意識的去調整它。

So, posture is not about preventing movement, but about allowing very small movements around a central balance point. Try to imagine that you are a bobble head doll and you can feel this subtle process of movement and readjustment happening constantly and involuntarily.


另一個關於姿勢重要的觀點是他是一個可以讓接下來的動作發生。理想的姿勢可以讓下一個動作是更少的準備與努力的。這個在運動裡面非常的重要,運動員的預備姿勢(通常是蹲著)需要讓他可以快速的而且用最少的準備與努力往任何方向移動。這樣的考量也應用在每天的生活,你的大腦是不停的去預期你的下一個動作,不論他多麼的小,你都會做出姿勢準備去做這些動作。

Another important aspect of posture is that it is the place from which the next movement will come. Optimal posture allows the next movement with a minimum of preparation and effort. This is of course vitally important in a sporting context, where players wait for the next move in a posture (usually a crouch) that allows quick movement in any direction with little effort or preparation. But such a consideration also applies to everyday life, and you can be sure that your brain is constantly anticipating your next move no matter how small, and making postural preparations for it.

一個在你坐著或者是站著的時候會不停發生的動作就是轉頭,然後看向不同地方,接收到各種不同的感覺資訊。每個頭部的動作,當他理想的去執行的時候,需要你脖子的活動還有一些很小的軀幹甚至是骨盆的代償動作。當你頭左右轉動的時候你可能會感覺到你的坐骨在你的座位上輕輕的小小的移動。維持著你的頭還有身體在一個僵硬的位置上,會限制你自由的去移動,而且使他們更加的僵硬以及不舒服。


One movement that occurs almost constantly in most sitting and standing postures is turning the head from side to side to scan the horizon and take in sensory information. Each head movement, when executed optimally, requires movement of the neck and more subtle compensatory movements in the trunk and even pelvis. Turn your head from side to side while sitting and you may feel your sit bones shifting slightly on your seat. Holding the head and trunk in a rigid position will restrict the freedom of these movements and make them stiffer and less comfortable.

試著建立你自己好的姿勢然後去看是否你需要更加的柔軟放鬆來讓你可以更舒服的轉頭。再一次說明,你的大腦不會讓你去建立一個使你不能快速且容易觀察周圍的姿勢,因此任何那樣的姿勢都注定會是失敗的。

Try adopting your “good” posture and then see if you need to soften it a little to turn comfortably from side to side. Again, your brain won’t let you adopt a posture that prevents a quick and easy scan of the horizon, and therefore any such posture is doomed to fail.
另一個在坐著的時候會很常做的動作就是伸手去拿鍵盤、滑鼠、電話、甜甜圈、遙控器等等。如果你的肩胛骨還是照著許多姿勢上專家的建議維持著收縮靠近脊椎的話,你的手臂並不會準備好伸手去拿。這也是再一次的說明為什麼刻意的去維持某個肌肉僵硬是很有可能會失敗的。大腦知道坐在電腦前面的時候會需要不停地伸手,所以他並不會讓肩胛骨持續的固定在背部。


Another motion that takes place almost constantly while sitting is reaching for a keyboard, mouse, phone, doughnut, remote control, etc. If the scapulae are held to the spine by the conscious retractions recommended by many posture experts, the arm is not ready to reach. And this is again why advice to consciously stiffen certain muscles is likely to fail. The brain knows that sitting at a computer means constant reaching, and it will not allow the scapulae to be constantly pinned back.
所以姿勢並不是一個固定不動的位置,而是一個動態的持續改變的一系列隱微的動作,讓你可以呼吸、轉頭、伸手去拿或者是維持平衡還有準備好做下一個動作。

The bottom line is that posture is not a static position to be held, but rather a dynamic and constantly changing series of subtle movements that allow breathing, turning and reaching, preserves easy balance, and prepares for the next movement.

誤解#5: 比較直以及比較對稱永遠是比較好的

BAD IDEA #5: STRAIGHTER AND MORE SYMMETRICAL IS ALWAYS BETTER
許多人認為他們比較直或是比較對稱的話就可以改善他們的姿勢。然而太強調你的姿勢看起來怎麼樣不是一個很好的主意。更重要的是你感覺如何以及這個姿勢如何幫助你。這種過度強調姿勢看起來怎麼樣的想法,大概是因為花太多的時間去看書裡面標準理想上的姿勢長什麼樣子。試著將你的身體拆解成各種形狀來達到圖片的那個樣子並不是一個很好的想法。


Many people assume their posture will improve if they get “straighter” and more symmetrical. However, it is a bad idea to place too much emphasis on how your posture looks. More important is how it feels and what it can help you do. The visual emphasis on posture probably results from spending too much time looking at pictures of platonically ideal posture shown in books. Trying to deform your body into the shapes in these pictures can be a bad idea.
每一個人都有他獨特的骨骼構造因此每個人都有他獨特的理想姿勢。我們每個人一定至少都有一些些骨骼上的左右不對稱。如果你仔細的去看骨骼模型你會發現左右邊的肋骨其實並沒有完全一樣,你也會發現脊椎有點從左邊往右邊彎曲。骨頭並不是機器做的不像IKEA的家具可以互換的零件一樣,它是適應張力以及擠壓的力量日積月累塑形出來的一個過程。這些力量是從各種不同的方向過來,因此不對稱是一定的而不是例外。


Every person has a unique bone structure and therefore each person has a unique ideal posture. We all have at least some minor asymmetries in the bones from left to right. If you look closely at a model skeleton you will notice that the ribs on the right side are not the same shape as the ribs on the left. You will also notice places where the spine curves from left to right. Bones are not made by machines like interchangeable pieces of Ikea furniture, they are shaped by years and years of an organic process of growth which responds to tensional and compressive forces. Such forces are bound to be different from side to side and therefore asymmetries are the rule not the exception.
如果你脊椎的骨頭在靠近薦椎的位置自然的就往左邊傾斜,那麼一定會有一個地方往右邊傾斜回去讓你的頭可以在骨盆的上方。這樣造成的弧度完全是自然的而且或許是對特定的人最理想的。如果試著想要拉直這個曲度來對抗骨頭的本來構造,勢必會在骨頭上面增加一些不必要的壓力和張力。


If the bones of your spine naturally tilt a little to the left near the sacrum, they will have to tilt back to the right at some point to keep the head over the pelvis. The resulting curvature is entirely natural and perhaps optimal for that particular person. Trying to straighten out the curves works against the grain of the bone, and is bound to cause unnecessary stress and tension.
同樣的原則也可以應用到上背與下背前彎與後彎的幅度,這個非常取決於骨頭的形狀,特別是薦椎骨,而薦椎骨的形狀在每一個人是非常不同的。所以每個人的理想姿勢是不同的,不要太在意你的姿勢看起來什麼樣子,而是去注意這個姿勢感覺如何。如果感覺不自然,這也是無效的。

The same principles apply to the size of the forward/back curves in the low and upper back, which are very much determined by the shape of the bones, particularly the sacrum, whose shape varies markedly between different people.The bottom line is that ideal posture is different for everyone, so don’t rely too much on how your posture looks, judge how it feels. If it doesn’t feel natural, it won’t work.

結論 

CONCLUSION


好,所以以上列出來事情或許沒有辦法幫助你改善的姿勢,在未來的文章我會寫關於些方法應該可以幫助這件事情。

OK, so there’s a list of things that probably won’t help you improve your posture. In a future post I’ll write about some approaches that might help.
譯者:Yang Tsu Ning


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